Pigmentation is a significant concern. It can affect people at different stages of life, including post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, and sunspots.

Hydroquinone

Hydroquinone is recommended for treating pigmentation, especially melasma, by suppressing melanin production.

Retinoids

Retinoids, such as retinol, are useful for improving skin regeneration, evening out pigmentation, and stimulating collagen production.

Azelaic acid

Azelaic acid helps minimize inflammation and redness associated with pigmentation issues.

Kojic Acid

Kojic acid is referred to as the "natural hydroquinone." Beneficial in reducing pigmentation. It's best used at concentrations around 5 percent

Niacinamide

It is a derivative of Vitamin B3. Using in the right concentration between 2-5 percent helps in minimizing inflammation and redness associated with pigmentation.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C, specifically L-ascorbic acid, can help protect the skin from free radical damage and prevent it from darkening further.

Arbutin

Arbutin converts into hydroquinone in the skin. It can be considered as an alternative for those who are hesitant about using hydroquinone.

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